Acasă Articole RTR Philipp Hochbaum, An der Zeitenwende – Der Temeschwarer Kongresses von 1790

Philipp Hochbaum, An der Zeitenwende – Der Temeschwarer Kongresses von 1790

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At the Turn of an Era – The Temeschwar Congress from 1790

In the late eighteenth century, the poly-ethnic Orthodox community of the Habsburg Empire has been characterized by an increase in the shift of loyalties. Both Serbs and Romanians still considered the Metropolis of Sremski Karlovci and their common, artificially created and confessionality-based “Illyric Nation”, the main recipient of their common loyalty. In order to define its legal position in Hungary and thus in the Habsburg empire, an assembly was held in Temesvar in August 1790. Some of the postulations then showed that emerging national identities began to spread among the Orthodox (officially not ethnically defined as “Illyrians”) leading to an emerging loyalty shift towards new national concepts based on ethnicity. Furthermore, these were also promulgated by social strata outside clerical structures, such as the still emerging bourgeoisie or the nobility whose representatives were also aiming towards a broader participation within the Hungarian legal system. An imperial decree marked the official end of the Orthodox discrimination in comparison to the Roman-catholic and Greek-catholic church that was complained about before on the Temesvar assembly. Trying to integrate the “Illyrians” in the legal system, the Hungarian diet granted them civil rights and a broader political participation. Its further promise of religious freedom indicates that the Orthodox community was still officially perceived beyond ethnic characteristics, in order to prevent ethnicity-motivated disintegration within Hungary, despite of its emerging inner rifts grounded in ethnic criteria. Thus the 1790 assembly and the following years represent a transition period in terms of national identity, its mutual perception and its promulgating groups.
Keywords: history of the Habsburg Empire, poly-ethnic Orthodox community of the Habsburg Empire, the Temeschwar Congress from 1790, „Illyric Nation”, national identity

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