Acasă Articole RTR EX ORIENTE LUX Petite histoire des lampes à huile des Phéniciens à...

EX ORIENTE LUX Petite histoire des lampes à huile des Phéniciens à l’Islam, à travers les chefs-d’œuvre d’Egypte et du Proche-Orient de la Collection Bouvier

373
Rezumat

EX ORIENTE LUX, A Short History of Oil Lamps from the Phoenicians to the Islam 

Through the Masterworks of Egypt and Near East in the Bouvier Collection

Egypt and the Near East have been among the most prolific areas for clay lamp production and innovation during the Phoenician, Greek, Roman, Byzantine and Islamic periods. These regions produced an amazing quantity of lamps, not only covering almost all the local needs, but also exported in the whole Eastern Mediterranean basin. The huge workshops of the area always show an unbelievable creativity in their work, creating their own lighting devices between adaptation of imported forms and shapes and creation of own models and types. The huge typological difference between the lamps produced in a same period is a precious indicator of the market preferences, and can even underline the specific tastes of some social classes or populations. This small introductive article is illustrated with some masterpieces of the huge, unpublished, Bouvier collection, constituted in Egypt in the first half of the 20th century and now preserved in Switzerland.

Keywords : Egypt, Near East, Ancient and medieval lamps, Chronological evolution, Typological evolution

Bibliografie

ABU SHMAIS 2011  Abu Shamais, A.I., A new collection of unpublished lamps candelsticks Amman archaeological district. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 149-156.

ADAN-BAYEWITZ/WIEDER/ASARO et al. 2008 Adan-Bayewitz, D/Wieder M./Asaro F. et al., Preferential distribution of lamps from the Jerusalem area in the late Second Temple Period (late first century B.C.E. – 70 C.E.), Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Researches 350, 37-85.

ADLER 2004

Adler N., Oil lamps of the Holy Land. The Adler Collection (Jerusalem: R&S Adler).

ALA EDDINE/AWARKEH 2011

Ala Eddine A./Awarkeh R., Two types of Byzantine lamps from site BEY 004. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 337-356.

AWARKEH 2005

Awarkeh R., Two types of Byzantine clay lamps. In: Morhange, C./Saghieh-Beydoun, M. (eds.), La mobilité des paysages portuaires antiques du Liban [BAAL Hors-série 2] (Beyrouth: Minstère de la culture, Direction Générale des Antiquités), 233-243.

ANSON/HANNAH 1999

Anson D./Hannah R., Lamps in the Egyptian collection of Otago Museum, Mediterranean Archaeology 12, 125-145.

BAILEY 1975

Bailey D.M., A catalogue of the lamps in the British Museum, 1. Greek, Hellenistic, and early Roman pottery lamps [Catalogue of the lamps in the British Museum 1] (London: Trustees of the British Museum).

BAILEY 1980

Bailey D.M., A catalogue of the lamps in the British Museum, 2. Roman lamps made in Italy [Catalogue of the lamps in the British Museum 2] (London: Trustees of the British Museum).

BAILEY 1988

Bailey D.M., A catalogue of the lamps in the British Museum. 3 Roman provincial lamps [Catalogue of the lamps in the British Museum 3] (London: British MuseumPress).

BAILEY 1996

Bailey D.M., Lamps of metal and stone, and lampstands [Catalogue of the lamps in the British Museum 4] (London: Trustees of the British Museum).

BAILEY 1998

Bailey D.M., Pottery, lamps and glass of the Late Roman and early Arab periods [Excavations at El-Ashmunein 5] (London: Trustees of the British Museum).

BAILEY 2001

Bailey D.M., Lamps from the sacred animal necropolis, North Saqqara and the monastery of Apa Antinos, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 87, 119-133.

BAILEY 2007

Bailey D., Pottery lamps. In: Maxfield, V.A./Peacock, D.P.S./Bradford, N. et al. (eds.), The Roman imperial quarries. Survey and excavation at Mons Porphyrites, 1994-1998 [Excavation Memoirs 82] (London: Egypt Exploration Society), 209-232.

BARRETT 2006

Barrett D.G., The ceramic oil lamp as an indicator of cultural change within Nabataean society in Petra and its environs circa CE 106 (Piscataway: Gorgias Press).

BARRETT 2011

Barrett D.G., The lamps at Khirbet et-Tannur. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 75-102.

BEAMES 2004

Beames H. Ancient Lamps in the Nicholson Museum (Sydney: Thesis (M. Phil.), Dept. of Classical Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, University of Sydney).

BÉMONT/CHEW 2007

Bémont, C./Chew, H., Musée d’archéologie nationale de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Lampes en terre cuite antiques (Paris: Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux).

BOHAC 1997

Bohac L., Lamps from Tell Erfad, Eirene 33, 129-134.

BLOCH 2010

Bloch F., Öllampen aus dem spätantik-frühislamischen Fundplatz Ğabal Says im Steppengürtel Syriens. In: Daim F/Drauschke J. (eds.), Byzanz – Das Römerreich im Mittelalter, 2.2 Schauplätze (Mainz: Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums), 895-907.

BLONDE 1998

Blondé F., Lampes tournées hellénistiques du Musée gréco-romain d’Alexandrie: problèmes et méthode. In: Empereur J.-Y. (éd.), Commerce et artisanat dans l’Alexandrie hellénistique et romaine [Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, Suppl. 33] (Athens: Ecole française d’Athenes), 307-325.

BUSSIÈRE 2000

Bussière J., Lampes antiques d’Algérie [Monographies Instrumentum 16] (Montagnac: Monique Mergoil).

BUSSIÈRE 2007

Bussière J., Lampes antiques d’Algérie, 2. Lampes tardives et lampes chrétiennes [Monographies Instrumentum 35] (Montagnac : Monique Mergoil).

CHARAF 2011

Charaf H., Overview of the Bronze Age and Iron Age lamps from Lebanon. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 241-258.

COEN-UZZIELLI 1997

Coen-Uzzielli T., The Oil Lamps. In: Hirschfeld Y. (ed.), The Roman Baths of Hammat Gader. Final Report (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society), 319-346.

COPLEY/BLAND/ROSE/HORTON/EVERSHED 2005

Copley M.S./Bland H.A./Rose P./Horton M./Evershed R.P., Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt, Analyst 120, 860-871.

CORTOPASSI 2008

Cortopassi R., Mèches de lampe trouvées à Baouit. In: Roman C.-A./Gudea N. (eds.), Lychnological Acts 2. Trade and local production of lamps from the prehistory until the Middle Age. Acts of 2nd International Congress on Ancient and Middle Age Lighting Device: Zalău-Cluj-Napoca, 13th – 18th of May 2006 [Patrimonium Archaeologicum Transylvanicum 2] (Cluj-Napoca: MEGA), 65-68.

DA COSTA 2001

Da Costa K., Byzantine and early Islamic lamps. Typology and distribution. In: Villeneuve, E./Watson, P. (eds.), La céramique byzantine et proto-islamique en SyrieJordanie, IVe-VIIIe siècles apr. J.-C. Actes du colloque tenu à Amman les 3, 4 et 5 décembre 1994 (Beyrouth: IFPO), 241-257.

DA COSTA 2010

Da Costa K., Economic Cycles in the Byzantine Levant: The Evidence from Lamps at Pella in Jordan, Levant 42/1, 70-87.

DESCOEUDRES/HARRISON 1997

Descoeudres J.-P./Harrison D., Greek and Roman Lamps in the Abbey Museum, Caboolture [Australia], Mediterranean Archaeology 9/10, 77-103.

DOBBINS 1980

Dobbins J.J., Terracotta lamps of the Roman province of Syria (Ann Arbor : University of Michigan & University Microfilms International).

DURAND 2011

Durand C., Les lampes nabatéennes et romaines de Khirbet Edh-Dharih (Jordanie) Ier – IVe s. ap. J.-C. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 43-73.

DZIERZYKRAY-ROGALSKI, GRZESZYK 1991

Dzierzykray-Rogalski T./Grzeszyk C., Les dermatoglyphes (empreintes des lignes papillaires) relevés sur des lampes alexandrines de Kôm el-Dikka (Alexandrie), Cahiers de la Céramique éyptienne 2, 125-128.

FRANGIE 2005

Frangié D., Les lampes hellénistiques de Beyrouth. In: Chrzanovski L. (ed), Lychnological acts 1. Actes du 1er Congrès international d’études sur le luminaire antique (Montagnac: Monique Mergoil), 115-122.

FRANGIE 2011

Frangié D., Les lampes hellénistiques de Beyrouth (chantiers 002/026 et 144) In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 31-41.

FRANGIE/SALLES 2011

Frangié D./Salles J.F., Lampes de Byblos. In: Frangié, D./ Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (613 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 259-302.

GARNIER/TOKARSKI/ROLANDO 2011

Garnier N./Tokarski C./Rolando C., Quels combustibles pour les lampes antiques nabatéennes de Petra? In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 103-123.

GEORGES 2001

Georges C., Les lampes. In: Empereur J.-Y./Nenna M.D. (eds.), Nécropolis 1: Tombes B1 B2, B3, B8 [Etudes alexandrines 5] (Le Caire: IFAO), 423-504.

GEORGES 2003a

Georges C., Les lampes. Secteur 2 de la fouille du pont de Gabbari. In: Empereur J.-Y./Nenna M.-D. (eds.), Nécropolis 2/1 [Etudes alexandrines 7] (Le Caire: IFAO), 261-277.

GEORGES 2003b

C. Georges, Les lampes. Les lampes. Secteur 5 de la fouille du pont de Gabbari. In: Empereur J.-Y./Nenna M.-D. (eds.), Nécropolis 2/2 [Etudes alexandrines 7] (Le Caire: IFAO), 491-509.

KELLER/GRAWEHR 2006

Keller, D./Grawehr, M., Petra. Ez Zantur III: Ergebnisse des Schweizerisch Liechtensteinischen Ausgrabungen. Part 1. Die Glaser aus Petra (Daniel Keller). Part 2. Die Lampen der Grabungen auf ez Zantur in Petra (Matthias Grawehr) [Terra Archaeologica V] (Mainz: Philipp von Zabern).

GRAWEHR 2011

Grawehr M., The Roman lamps of Nabataean Petra. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 11-30.

GUIDONI 1990

Guidoni G., Le lucerne del Museo di Bosra (Siria), 1. Dal tardoantico all’Islam, Felix Ravenna 139-140, 45-85.

GUIDONI 1995

Guidoni G., L’evoluzione delle lucerne siro-palestinesi dal tardoantico all’Islam. In: Farioli-Campanati R. (ed.), Ravenna, Costantinopoli, Vicino Oriente (Ravenna: Università di Bologna), 409-431.

HACHLILI 2001

Hachlili R., The Menorah, the Ancient Seven-armed Candelabrum: Origin, Form & Significance (Leiden: Brill).

HADAD 2002

Hadad S., The Oil Lamps from the Hebrew University Excavations at Bet Shean [Qedem Reports 4] (Jerusalem: IAHU).

HAYES 1980

Hayes J.W., Ancient lamps in the Royal Ontario Museum, 1. Greek and Roman clay lamps. A catalogue (Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum).

HEIMBERG 1993

Heimberg U., Funde aus dem Tempelgrab Nr. 36 in Palmyra. Die Lampen, Damaszener Mitteilungen 7, 81-134.

HOLMQVIST 2011

Holmqvist V.E., Ceramic lamps from Jabal Harûn near Petra. Chronological and typological considerations. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 303-335.

JACKSON 2000

Jackson H., Terracotta lamps of a Hellenistic housing insula at Jebel Khalid, North Syria, Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum acta 36, 11-17.

KEHRBERG 1989

Kehrberg I., Selected Lamps and Pottery from the Hippodrome at Jerash, Syria 66, 85-97.

KEHRBERG 2001

Kehrberg I., Ceramic lamp production in the 4th and early 5th centuries AD at the hippodrome of Gerasa. An empirical study. In: Villeneuve, E./Watson, P. (eds.), La céramique byzantine et proto-islamique en Syrie-Jordanie, IVe-VIIIe siècles apr. J.-C. Actes du colloque tenu à Amman les 3, 4 et 5 décembre 1994 (Beyrouth: IFPO), 231-239.

KEHRBERG 2011

Kehrberg I., The complexity of ancient lamps. Archaeological contexts, material assemblages and the chronology of lamp types. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005) (Paris: De Boccard), 127-147.

KELLER 2010

Keller D., Abbots’ orders, pilgrims’ donations, glass collection. The supply of glass lamps for a monasticpilgrimage church in Southern Jordan. In: Drauschke J. (ed.), Glass in Byzantium. Glas in Byzanz. Produktion, Verwendung, Analysen. Internationaler workshop der Byzantinischen Archäologie Mainz, 17.-18. Januar 2008, Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum (Regensburg : Schnell & Steiner), 183-198.

KNOWLES 2006

Knowles K., The Pottery Lamps. In V. A. Maxfield/ D.P.S. Peacock (eds.), Survey and excavations. Mons Claudianus: 1987-1993. Volume III, ceramic vessels and related objects (Le Caire: IFAO), 309-426.

LAPP 2012

Lapp E.C., A water absorption analysis of Nabatean, north African and other clay lamp fabrics unearthed at the Red Sea Port of Roman Aila (Aqaba, Jordan), Archaeometry 54, 56-79.

LARESE/SGREVA 1997

Larese A./Sgreva D., Le lucerne fittili e bronzee del Museo Archeologico di Verona. [Collezioni e musei archeologici del Veneto 27). Vol. 1-2 (Roma: Giorgio Bretschneider).

LINDBLOM 2005

Lindblom J., Different types of glass lamps in use at the Byzantine monastic complex on Jabal Harûn near Petra, Jordan. In: Chrzanovski L. (ed), Lychnological acts 1. Actes du 1er Congrès international d’études sur le luminaire antique (Montagnac: Monique Mergoil), 207-210.

LOFFREDA 2008

Loffreda S., Cafarnao VI. Tipologie e contesti stratigrafici della ceramica (1968-2003) (Jerusalem: Edizioni Terra Santa), vol. 1-2.

LORAND 2011

Lorand D., Lampes et moules en terre cuite d’Apamée de Syrie. Premiers résultats de la campagne 2005. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005), 213-237.

MACDONALD 1898

MacDonald L., Catalogue of the Greek and Etruscan Vases and of the Greek and Roman Lamps in the Nicholson Museum, University of Sidney (Sydney: WM Books).

MANSOUR 2011

Mansour S., Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine lamps from the lower terrace of Amman citadel. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005), 157-166.

MIKATI 2002

Mikati, R., Chronological, functional and spatial aspects in lamp studies: the Roman bath lamps, BEY 045, Aram 13-14, 281-292.

MIKATI 2003

Mikati R., Faustus the Early Roman Lamp Maker Visits Beirut. Evidence of a Tyre-based Production. In: Chrzanovski, L. (ed.), Nouveautés Lychnologiques (Sierre: Lychno Services), 175-180.

MIKATI 2005

Mikati R., Beirut oil lamp trade. A typology of the Tyre region products, the late Roman group. In: Chrzanovski L. (ed), Lychnological acts 1. Actes du 1er Congrès international d’études sur le luminaire antique (Montagnac: Monique Mergoil), 207-210.

MLYNARCZYK 1973

Mlynarczyk J., Egyptian types of terracotta lamps from Tell Atrib, Etudes et Travaux 7, 81-113.

MLYNARCZYK 1974

Mlynarczyk J., Terakotowe lampki oliwne z Tell Atrib, Rócznik Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie 18, 145-185.

MLYNARCZYK 1995

Mlynarczyk J., New data on the chronology of late Roman lamps in Alexandria, Etudes et travaux 17, 133-175.

MLYNARCZYK 1997

Mlynarczyk J., Alexandrian and Alexandria-influenced mould-made lamps of the Hellenistic period [British Archaeological Reports International Series 677] (Oxford: Archaeopress).

MLYNARCZYK 1998

Mlynarczyk J., Terracotta mould-made Lamps in Alexandria. In: Empereur J.-Y. (éd.), Commerce et artisanat dans l’Alexandrie hellénistique et romaine [Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, Suppl. 33] (Athens: Ecole française d’Athenes), 327-352.

MLYNARCZYK 2011a

Mlynarczyk J., The fading lights of a church… In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005), 183-195.

MLYNARCZYK 2011b

Mlynarczyk J., Umayyad-period terracotta lamps from Hippos (Susita), Jund al Urdunn. In: Frangié, D./ Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (613 novembre 2005), 197-211.

MLYNARCZYK 2013

Mlynarczyk J., Terracotta Oil Lamps from Qumran: The Typology, Revue Biblique 120-121, 99-133.

MULDER-HYMANS 2001-2002

Mulder-Hymans N., The “egg shell-thin” oil lamps from the souk of Beirut, Aram 13-14, 265-280.

PAPANICOLAOU CHRISTENSEN 1986

Papanicolaou-Christensen A., Les lampes hellénistiques, romaines et byzantines. In: Papanicolaou Christensen A./Thomsen R./Ploug G. (eds.), Hama. Fouilles et recherches de la Fondation Carslberg 1931-1938, III.3, The Graeco-Roman objects of clay, the coins and the necropolis (Copenhague: Nationalmuseet), 7-31.

PEACOCK 2011

Peacock D., Ceramic lamps. In: Peacock D./Blue L. (eds.), Myos Hormos – Quseir al-Qadim. Roman and Islamic ports on the Red Sea, 2. Finds from the excavations 1999 – 2003 [British Archaeological Reports International Series 2286) (Oxford: Oxbow Books), 47-56.

PLOUG 1986

Ploug G., The Graeco-Roman necropolis. In: Papanicolaou Christensen A./Thomsen R./Ploug G. (eds.), Hama. Fouilles et recherches de la Fondation Carslberg 1931-1938, III.3, The Graeco-Roman objects of clay, the coins and the necropolis (Copenhague: Nationalmuseet), 70-113.

ROEMER-STREHL 2013

Römer-Strehl C., Lampen. In: Schmidt-Colinet A./al-As’ad W. (eds.), Palmyras Reichtum durch weltweiten Handel. Archäologische Untersuchungen im Bereich der hellenistischen Stadt (Wien: Holzhausen), 109-126.

SHIER 1978

Shier L.A., Terracotta lamps from Karanis, Egypt. Excavations of the University of Michigan, (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press & University Microfilms International).

SCHOLL 1991

Scholl T., The Chronology of Jerash Lamps: Umayyad Period, Archeologia (Warszawa) 42, 65-84.

STACEY 2004

Stacey D., Excavations at Tiberias, 1973-1974. The Early Islamic Periods [Israel Antiquities Authority Reports 21], (Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority).

SUSSMAN 2007

Sussman V., Oil-lamps in the Holy Land. Saucer Lamps, from the beginning to the Hellenistic Period. Collections of the Israel Antiquities Authority [British Archaeological Reports. International series 1598 (Oxford: Archaeopress).

 

SZYMAŃSKA 2008

Szymańska H., Pottery lamps from the baths, saqiyah and funerary chapel. In: Szymańska H./Babraj K. (eds.), Marea, 1. Byzantine Marea. Excavations in 2000– 2003 and 2006 (Kraków: Archaeological Museum), 161-168.

TAL/TEIXEIRA-BASTOS 2012

Tal O./Teixeira-Bastos M., Intentionally Broken Discus Lamps from Roman Apollonia: A New Interpretation, Tel Aviv 23, 104-114.

WALISZEWSKI 2011

Waliszewski T., Lamp-mould from Jiyeh (southern Lebanon). A variant of ovoid lamps in the Byzantine period and early Islamic Levant. In: Frangié, D./Salles, J.-F. (eds), Lampes antiques du Bilad es Sham. Jordanie, Syrie, Liban, Palestine. Ancient lamps of Bilad es Sham. Actes du colloque de Pétra-Amman (6-13 novembre 2005), 357-384.

WASILEWSKA 2008

Wasilewska O., Some Lamps From Tell Farama (Pelusium), Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 18, 118-125.

WEXLER, GILBOA 1996

Wexler L., Gilboa G., Oil lamps of the Roman period from Apollonia-Arsuf, Tel Aviv 23, 115-131.

ZAYADINE 1986

Zayadine F. (ed.), Jerash Archaeological Project 1: 1981-1983 (Amman: Dep. of Antiquities of Jordan).

ZYCH 2003

Zych I., Marina El-Alamein. Some Ancient Terracotta Lamps From Marina, Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 18, 77-90.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DISTRIBUIȚI