Free Porn
Acasă Articole RTR Samuel Beckett and E. M. Cioran: The Passion for Ruins

Samuel Beckett and E. M. Cioran: The Passion for Ruins

921
Rezumat

Abstract: In this article I will focus on three major intersections between Samuel Beckett’s and E. M. Cioran’s works, irrespective of the fact that Beckett chose mainly the medium of prose and theatre, while Cioran chose the philosophical essay. Starting from several biographical encounters mentioned in Beckett’s Letters and Cioran’s Cahiers and the section on Beckett from Anathemas and Admirations, I will first explore autobiography as a “figure of reading” (Paul de Man), and use my role as a reader to become a sort of judge who looks into the different ways in which Beckett and Cioran wrote a type of autobiography always veiled through what I will call Facing / Defacing / Figuring / Disfiguring, also searching for possible reasons why they insisted on believing that in life one must keep on trying against all odds. The second comparison will delve into Beckett’s and Cioran’s “absentheism” (a concept I borrow from Jean-Luc Nancy) and negative theology. The third analogy will deal with the way in which Beckett and Cioran performed failure in their works.

Keywords: Samuel Beckett, E. M. Cioran, stylistic proximities, autobiography, disguise, “absentheism,” negative theology, failure

Bibliografie

Acquisto, Joseph. The Fall Out of Redemption: Writing and Thinking Beyond Salvation in Baudelaire, Cioran, Fondane, Agamben, and Nancy. New York and London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015.

Adorno, Theodor W. Negative Dialectics. Translated by E. B. Ashton. London and New York: Routledge, 2004 [1973].

Alber, Jan. “The ‘Moreness’ or ‘Lessness’ of ‘Natural’ Narratology: Samuel Beckett’s ‘Lessness’ Reconsidered.” Style 36, no. 1 (2002): 54–72.

Andrei-Baron, Dumitra. “Naître de nouveau dans une langue nouvelle: le problème du bilinguisme chez Cioran et Beckett” [Being Born Again in a New Language: The Problem of Bilingualism with Cioran and Beckett]. In Approches critiques (III), Cahiers Emil Cioran, edited by Eugène Van Itterbeek. 129–133. Sibiu and Leuven: Éditions de l’Université Lucian Blaga and Éditions Les Sept Dormants, 2001.

Bair, Deidre. Samuel Beckett: A Biography. London: Picador, 1980.

Balan, George. Emil Cioran. La lucidité libératrice? Paris: Josette Lyon, 2002.

Baron, Dumitra. Variations po(ï)étiques – Les matériaux intertextuels anglo-américains dans l’œuvre de Cioran. Sibiu and Cluj-Napoca: Editura InfoArt Media and Editura Mega, 2011.

Beckett, Samuel. Catastrophe. In The Complete Dramatic Works. 455–461. London: Faber and Faber, 1990.

Beckett, Samuel. Endgame. In The Complete Dramatic Works. 89–134. London: Faber and Faber, 1990.

Beckett, Samuel. “Fizzles.” In The Complete Short Prose 19291989, edited and with an Introduction and Notes by S.E. Gontarski. 224–246. New York: Grove Press, 1995.

Beckett, Samuel. “Lessness.” In The Complete Short Prose 19291989, edited and with an Introduction and Notes by S.E. Gontarski. 197–201. New York: Grove Press, 1995.

Beckett, Samuel. “Texts for Nothing.” In The Complete Short Prose 19291989, edited and with an Introduction and Notes by S.E. Gontarski. 100–154. New York: Grove Press, 1995.

Beckett, Samuel. The Letters of Samuel Beckett, vol. 2: 19411956, edited by George Craig et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Beckett, Samuel. The Letters of Samuel Beckett, vol. 4: 19661989, edited by George Craig et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Beckett, Samuel. The Unnameable. In Samuel Beckett Trilogy: Molloy, Malone Dies, The Unnameable. 293–418. London: John Calder, 2003.

Beckett, Samuel. Waiting for Godot. In The Complete Dramatic Works. 7–88. London: Faber and Faber, 1990.

Beckett, Samuel. Watt, edited by C. J. Ackerley. London: Faber and Faber, 2009.

Beckett, Samuel. Worstward Ho. New York: Grove Press, 1983.

Beer, Ann. “Beckett’s Bilingualism.” In The Cambridge Companion to Beckett, edited by John Pilling. 209–221. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Bejan, Cristina A. Intellectuals and Fascism in Interwar Romania: The Criterion Association. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.

Blanchot, Maurice. The Infinite Conversation. Translated by Susan Hanson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003.

Blanchot, Maurice. The Writing of the Disaster. Translated by Ann Smock. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.

Bolea, Ştefan. “Toward the ‘Never-Born:’ Mainländer and Cioran.” Revue Roumaine de Philosophie 65, no. 1 (2021): 145–155.

Bollon, Patrice. Cioran l’hérétique [Cioran, the Heretic]. Paris: Gallimard, 1997.

Boué, Simone. “Entretien avec Norbert Dodille” [Interview with Norbert Dodille]. In Lectures de Cioran, edited by Norbert Dodille and Gabriel Liiceanu. 11–42. Paris: Editions L’Harmattan, 1997.

Bradatan, Costica. “Geography and Fragility.” Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanities 15, no. 3 (2010): 1–8.

Bradatan, Costica. In Praise of Failure: Four Lessons in Humility. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2023.

Bradatan, Costica. “The Philosopher of Failure: Emil Cioran’s Heights of Despair.” Los Angeles Review of Books, 28 November 2016, https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/philosopher-failure-emil-ciorans-heights-despair/. Accessed 30 December 2022.

Bryden, Mary. “Figures of Golgotha: Beckett’s Pinioned People.” In The Ideal Core of the Onion: Reading Beckett Archives, edited by John Pilling and Mary Bryden. 45–62. Reading: Beckett International Foundation, 1992.

Casement, Patrick J. “Samuel Beckett’s Relationship to His Mother-Tongue.” In Transitional Objects and Potential Spaces: Literary Uses of D. W. Winnicott, edited by Peter L. Rudnytsky. 229–245. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Cavaillès, Nicolas. Cioran malgré lui. Écrire à l’encontre de soi. Paris: CNRS Éditions, 2011.

Cavaillès, Nicolas. “Le Corrupteur corrompu. Barbarie et méthode dans l’écriture cioranienne.” Genesis (Manuscrits-Recherche-Invention) 25 (2005): 85–106.

Cavaillès, Nicolas. Le Corrupteur corrompu. Barbarie et méthode dans l’écriture de Cioran. Paris: Le manuscrit, 2005.

Cavaillès, Nicolas. “Suicide, décomposition, corruption. Genèse et dialogisme du Précis de décomposition de Cioran.” PhD Thesis, Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3, 2007.

Cioran, E. M. A History of Decay. Translated by Richard Howard, Foreword Eugene Thacker. New York: Arcade Publishing, 2012.

Cioran, E. M. Anathemas and Admirations. Translated by Richard Howard, Foreword Eugene Thacker. New York: Arcade Publishing, 2012.

Cioran, E. M. Aveux et anathèmes [Confessions and Anathemas]. In Œuvres, Annotated Edition by Nicolas Cavaillès, with the collaboration of Aurélien Demars. 1019–1128. Paris: Gallimard, 2011.

Cioran, E. M. Cahiers, 19571972 [Notebooks, 1957–1972]. Foreword Simone Boué. Paris: Gallimard, 1997.

Cioran, E. M. “Encounters with Beckett.” Partizan Review, XLIII, no. 2 (1976): 280–5; republished in Samuel Beckett: The Critical Heritage, edited by Lawrence Graver and Raymond Federman. 375–380. London and New York: Routledge 2005 [1979].

Cioran, E. M. Entretiens [Interviews]. Paris: Gallimard, 1995.

Cioran, E. M. Exercices d’admiration [Exercises of Admiration]. In Œuvres, Annotated Edition by Nicolas Cavaillès, with the collaboration of Aurélien Demars. 1129–1250. Paris: Gallimard, 2011.

Cioran, E. M. On the Heights of Despair. Translated by Ilinca Zarifopol-Johnston. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Cioran, E. M. The New Gods. Translated by Richard Howard. New York: Quadrangle Books, 1969.

Cioran, E. M. The Temptation to Exist. Translated to Richard Howard, Introduction Susan Sontag. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1968.

Cioran, Emil. “Impresii din München. Hitler în conştiinţa germană” [Impressions from Munich: Hitler in the German Consciousness], Vatra 7–8 (2004): 52 [originally published in Vremea VII.346 (15 July 1934)].

Clément, Bruno. L’Œuvre sans qualités. Rhétorique de Samuel Beckett [The Work Without Qualities: Samuel Beckett’s Rhetoric]. Preface by Michel Deguy. Paris: Seuil, 1994.

Clément, Bruno. “Mais quelle est cette voix?” [Yet What Is This Voice]. In Samuel Beckett Today / Aujourd’hui 19. Borderless Beckett / Beckett sans frontières, edited by Minako Okamuro et al. 89–101. 2008.

Clément, Bruno and François Noudelmann. Samuel Beckett. Paris: ADPF/ Ministère des Affaires étrangères, 2006.

Codrescu, Andrei. “E. M. Cioran, or God Doesn’t Wear a Cane.” In Essays on E.M. Cioran (Rasinari 1911Paris 1995), edited by Aleksandra Gruzinska. 58–59. Chișinău: Tehnica, 1999.

Cormier, Ramona and Janis L. Pallister. Waiting for Death: The Philosophical Significance of Beckett’s En attendant Godot. Tuscaloosa: Alabama University Press, 1979.

Cronin, Anthony. Samuel Beckett: The Last Modernist. London: Harper Collins, 1996.

Cousineau, Thomas. “Cioran, E. M. on Beckett.” The Beckett Circle / Le Cercle de Beckett: Newsletter of Samuel Beckett Society 28, no. 1 (2005):  5.

Cousineau, Thomas J. The Séance of Reading: Uncanny Designs in Modernist Writing. Bucharest: Editura Universitară, 2023.

Cousineau, Thomas. “Samuel Beckett and Emil Cioran: Writing as Play-acting.” Panel on E.M. Cioran’s French and Romanian Oeuvre, His Contemporaries and His Friends, chaired by Aurélien Demars.  Annual Meeting of the Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association, 2016.

de Man, Paul. “Autobiography as De-facement.” MLN 94, no. 5 (1979): 919–930.

David, Sylvain. Cioran. Un héroïsme à rebours [Cioran: Heroism in Reverse]. Montréal: P.U. Montréal, 2006.

Demars, Aurélien. “Le pessimisme jubilatoire de Cioran. Enquête sur un paradigme métaphysique négatif” [The Jubilatory Pessimism of Cioran: An Inquiry into the Paradigm of the Metaphysical Negative]. PhD Thesis, Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3, 2007.

Demars, Aurélien and Mihaela-Genţiana Stănişor, eds. Cioran, archives paradoxales. Tome VI. Nouvelles approches critiques. Paris: Classiques Garnier, 2022.

Derrida, Jacques. Writing and Difference. Translated, Introduction and Additional notes by Alan Bass. London and New York: Routledge, 2002.

Dollé, Marie. L’Imaginaire des langues [The Imaginary of Languages]. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2001.

Dur, Ion. Cioran: A Dionysiac with the Voluptuousness of Doubt. Translated by Ian and Ann Marie Browne. Wilmington, DE: Vernon Press, 2019.

Elias, Camelia. The Fragment: Towards a History and Poetics of a Performative Genre. New York: Peter Lang, 2004.

Esslin, Martin. The Theatre of the Absurd. New York: Anchor Books, 1961.

Fifield, Peter. Late Modernist Style in Samuel Beckett and Emmanuel Levinas. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Friesen, Michael. “Before the Curtain Falls: Samuel Beckett and E. M. Cioran.” MA Thesis, University of British Columbia, 2012.

Hart, Kevin. “‘The Absolute Event of History’: The Shoah and the Outside.” Word and Text – A Journal of Literary Studies and Linguistics 5, no. 1–2, Special Issue: “Blanchot’s Spaces”, edited by Arleen Ionescu, William Large and Laura Marin (2015): 169–189.

Ionescu, Arleen. “Anathematizing Barthes and Admiring Beckett with Eugène Ionesco.” Paragraph 45, no. 2 (2022): 187–202.; DOI: 10.3366/para.2022.0396.

Ionescu, Arleen. “Blanchot in Infinite Conversation(s) with Beckett.” Journal of Modern Literature 44, no. 3 (2021): 76–92.; DOI: 10.2979/jmodelite.44.3.06.

Ionescu, Arleen. “‘Channels of Interference:’ Maurice Blanchot and Emil Cioran.” Primerjalna književnost 45, no.1 (2022): 189–208.; DOI: 10.3986/pkn.v45.i1.11.

Ionescu, Arleen. “The Essay as Brinkmanship: Cioran’s Fragment, Aphorism and Autobiography.” In The Edinburgh Companion to the Essay, edited by Mario Aquilina et al. 343–357. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2022.

Ionescu, Arleen. “Language as Becoming: The Cases of Self-Translation of Samuel Beckett and E. M. Cioran.” In The Time is Now: Essays on the Philosophy of Becoming, edited by Mihaela Gligor. 63–92. Bucharest: Zeta Books, 2020.

Ionescu, Arleen. Memorial Ethics of Libeskind’s Berlin Jewish Museum. London: Palgrave, 2017.

Ionescu, Arleen. “The ‘Differend’ of Shoes: Van Gogh, Beckett, Wiesel, Levi, and Holocaust Museums.” Partial Answers: Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas 17, no. 2 (2019): 255–77.; DOI: 10.1353/pan.2019.0017.

Ionescu, Arleen. “Waiting for Blanchot: A Third Act for Beckett’s Play.” Partial Answers: Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas 11, no. 1 (2013): 71–86.; DOI: 10.1353/pan.2013.0004.

Jaudeau, Sylvie. Cioran ou le dernier home. Paris: José Corti, 1990.

Johansson, Birgitta. “Beckett and the Apophatic in Selected Shorter Texts.” In Samuel Beckett Today / Aujourd’hui 9. Beckett and Religion. Aesthetics. Politics, edited by Marius Buning et al. 55–65. 2000.

Keatinge, Benjamin. “Samuel Beckett and Emil Cioran: Towards A Comparative Study.” In N.E.C. Yearbook 2014–2015. 154–177. Bucharest: NEC, 2015.

Kluback, William. “An Encounter: Cioran and Samuel Beckett.” In The Temptations of Emile Cioran, edited by William Kluback and Michael Finkenthal. 225–228. New York: Peter Lang, 1997.

Knowlson, James. Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.

Laignel-Lavastine, Alexandra. “Le jeune Cioran: de l’inconvénient d’avoir été fasciste.” [The Young Cioran: The Trouble with Having Been a Fascist]. Le Débat 93. Paris: Gallimard, 1997.

Laignel-Lavastine, Alexandra. Cioran, Eliade, Ionesco: l’oubli du fascisme, trois intellectuels roumains dans la tourmente du siècle [Cioran, Eliade, Ionesco: The Oblivion of Fascism, Three Romanian Intellectuals in the Turmoil of the Century]. Paris: PUF, 2002.

Lallot, Jean. “Actor: Prosôpon, persona: From Theater to Grammar.” In Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon, edited by Barbara Cassin. Translated by Steven Rendall et al. 11. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2004.

Liiceanu, Gabriel. Itinerariile unei vieţi: E. M. Cioran. Apocalipsa după Cioran [The Itineraries of a Life: E. M. Cioran; The Apocalypse after Cioran]. Bucharest: Humanitas, 2011.

Liiceanu, Gabriel and Sorin Ilieșiu. Apocalipsa după Cioran [The Apocalypse According to Cioran]. Bucharest: Studioul Video Dialog al G.D.S., 1995; CD. Bucharest: Humanitas Multimedia, 2003. [Parts of the documentary was later incorporated into a 4-hour version that includes dialogues with Philosopher Petre Țuţea. See “Full Documentary of E. M. Cioran,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13aEoU_tTPU. Accessed 18 January 2023.]

Lits, Marc. “Cioran, E. M.” In Encyclopedia of the Essay, edited by Tracy Chevalier. 382–385. London and Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.

Lits, Marc. “Cioran, Emil Michel: Philosopher, Essayist.” In Encyclopedia of Modern French Thought, edited by Christopher John Murray. 137–139. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2004.

Maclachlan, Ian. Marking Time: Derrida, Blanchot, Beckett, des Forêts, Klossowski, Laporte. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2012.

Mavrodin, Irina. “Cioran: un réceptacle de multiples noms.” [Cioran: A Receptacle of Multiple Names]. In Approches critiques (XI), Cahiers Emil Cioran, edited by Eugène Van Itterbeek. 63–67. Sibiu: Éditions de l’Université Lucian Blaga and Leuven: Éditions Les Sept Dormants, 2010.

McCandless, David. “Beckett and Tillich: Courage and Existence in Waiting for Godot.” In Critical Essays on Samuel Beckett, edited by Lance Butler. Aldershot: Scholar Press, 1993.

McTighe, Trish. Carnivals of Ruin: Beckett, Ireland, and the Festival Form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023.

Milesi, Laurent. “B Effects: Barthes, Blanchot and Beckett.” Paragraph: A Journal of Modern Critical Theory 45, no. 2 (July 2022): 157–171.; DOI: 10.3366/para.2022.0394.

Modreanu, Simona. Cioran. Paris: Éditions Oxus, 2003.

Modreanu, Simona. Le dieu paradoxal de Cioran [Cioran’s Paradoxical God]. Paris: Rocher, 2004.

Moraru, Christian. “Reading, Writing, Being: Persians, Parisians, and the Scandal of Identity.” Symploke 17, no. 1–2 (2009): 247–253.; DOI: 10.1353/sym.2009.0012.

Morin, Emilie. Beckett’s Political Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Nancy, Jean-Luc. “The Name God in Blanchot.” Translated by Michael B. Smith. In Dis-Enclosure: The Deconstruction of Philosophy. Translated by Bettina Bergo et al. New York: Fordham University Press, 2008.

Necula, Ionel. Cioran, scepticul nemântuit [Cioran, the Unsaved Sceptic]. Tecuci: Demiurg, 1995.

Nica, Marius, “The Irony and Obsessions of Cioran’s Philosophy.” In Multicultural Representations: Literature and Discourse as Forms of Dialogue, edited by Iulian Boldea, Cornel Sigmirean. 118–124. Tîrgu Mureș: Arhipelag XXI Press, 2016.

Oprescu, Florin. “E. M. Cioran and the Self-Image of the Modern Philosopher in the Broken Mirror.” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 71 (2013): 182–188.

Ornea, Zigu. Anii treizeci. Extrema dreaptă românească [The 1903’s: The Romanian Extreme Right]. Bucharest: Editura Fundaţiei Culturale Române, 1995.

Parfait, Nicole. Cioran ou le défi de l’être [Cioran or The Challenge of Being] Paris: Éd. Desjonqueres, 2001.

Piednoir, Vincent. Cioran avant Cioran: histoire d’une transfiguration. Marseille: Éditions Gaussen, 2013.

Pratt, Alan R. “Cioran Emil M.” In The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief, edited by Tom Flynn. 192–193. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007.

Petreu, Marta. An Infamous Past: E. M. Cioran and the Rise of Fascism in Romania. Translated by Bogdan Aldea, Foreword Norman Manea. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2005.

Pilling, John. “Two Versions of De‑composition: Samuel Beckett and E. M. Cioran.” New Universities Quarterly 31, no. 3 (Summer 1977): 305–315.

Portal E. M. Cioran. Brasil, https://portalcioranbr.wordpress.com/fortuna-critica/bibliografia/ Accessed 20 January 2022.

Puică, Gina. “D’un lyrisme débridé et fanatique à l’expression épurée d’un scepticisme régnant. évolution et contradictions dans le parcours roumain et français d’Emil Cioran (1911–1995).” [On the Unbridled and Fanatical Lyricism to the Refined Expression of a Reigning Scepticism: Evolution and Contradictions in the Romanian and French Career of Emil Cioran (1911–1995).” In Affinités latines. La culture, élément des relations franco-roumaines, edited by Ana-Maria Gîrleanu-Guichard and Jean-Nöel Grandhomme. Nancy: Centre de Recherche Universitaire Lorrain d’Histoire, 2018. 59–67.

Rabaté, Jean-Michel. Beckett and Sade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020.

Rabaté, Jean-Michel. “Formal Brilliance and Indeterminate Purport: The Poetry of Beckett’s Philosophemes.” Fulcrum 6 (2007): 530–550.

Rabaté, Jean-Michel. Think, Pig! Beckett at the Limit of the Human. New York: Fordham University Press, 2016.

Regier, Willis G. “Cioran’s Insomnia.” MLN 119, no. 5 (December 2004): 994–1012.

Regier, Willis G. “Cioran’s Nietzsche.” French Forum 30, no. 3 (2005): 75–90.

Ross, Ciaran. Beckett’s Art of Absence: Rethinking the Void. New York: Palgrave, 2011.

Rosset, Clément. “Postscriptum: Le mécontentement de Cioran” [Postscript: Cioran’s Displeasure]. In La Force majeure. 95–101. Paris: Minuit, 1983.

Saiu, Octavian. “Samuel Beckett behind the Iron Curtain: The Reception in Eastern Europe.” In The International Reception of Samuel Beckett, edited by Mark Nixon and Matthew Feldman. 251–271. London and New York: Continuum, 2009.

Saint Augustine. The Confessions of Saint Augustine. Translated by Rex Warner, with a New Introduction and Afterword by Martin E. Marty. New York: Signet Classic, 2001.

Salisbury, Laura. Samuel Beckett: Laughing Matters, Comic Timing. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012.

Sereș, Alexandru. Cioran, omul incomplet [Cioran, The Incomplete Man]. Bucharest: Tracus Arte, 2021.

Shapiro, Paul A. “Faith, Murder, Resurrection: The Iron Guard and the Romanian Orthodox Church”. In Antisemitism, Christian Ambivalence, and the Holocaust, edited by Kevin P. Spicer. 136–170. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, published in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington D.C., 2007.

Stan, Emil. Cioran. Vitalitatea renunțării [Cioran: The Vitality of Renunciation]. Iaşi: Institutul European, 2005.

Szafraniec, Asja. Beckett, Derrida, and the Event of Literature. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007.

Temkine, Valentin, François Rastier and Pierre Temkine. “En Attendant Godot: de l’absurde à l’histoire. Dialogue et débat.” [Waiting for Godot: From the Absurd to History. Dialogue and Debate] Texto! 13, no. 1 (2008): 1–38.

Tereszewski, Marcin. The Aesthetics of Failure: Inexpressibility in Samuel Beckett’s Fiction. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2013.

Tismaneanu, Vladimir. “The Metapolitics of Despair: Romania’s Mystical Generation and the Passions of Emil Cioran.” In Ideological Storms: Intellectuals, Dictators, and the Totalitarian Temptation, edited by Vladimir Tismaneanu and Bogdan C. Iacob. 209–234. Budapest and New York: Central European University Press, 2019.

Turcan, Nicolae. Cioran sau excesul ca filosofie [Cioran or the Excess as Philosophy]. Cluj-Napoca: Limes, 2008.

Țuţea, Petre. In “Full Documentary of E. M. Cioran,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13aEoU_tTPU. Accessed 20 January 2023.

van Hulle, Dirk and Mark Nixon. Samuel Beckett’s Library. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Vartic, Ion. Cioran naiv si sentimental [The Naive and Sentimental Cioran]. Cluj: Biblioteca Apostrof, 2000.

Walkowitz, Rebecca L. Born Translated: The Contemporary Novel in an Age of World Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015.

Walling, Jane. ‘“Dim Whence Unknown:’ Beckett and the Inner Logos.” In Samuel Beckett Today / Aujourd’hui 9. Beckett and Religion, edited by Marius Buning et al. 105–118. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000.

Wee, Samuel Caleb. “Songs of ‘Experientiality’: Reconsidering the Relationship between Poeticity and Narrativity in Postclassical Narratology.” Word and Text – A Journal of Literary Studies and Linguistics 9, Special Issue: “Postclassical Narratology Twenty Years Later”, edited by Arleen Ionescu, Laurent Milesi and Biwu Shang (2019): 93–106.

Webner, Helene L. “Waiting for Godot and the New Theology.” Renascence 21, no.1: “Essays on Value in Literature” (1968): 3–31.

Weller, Shane. Modernism and Nihilism. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Weller, Shane. “Orgy of False Being Life in Common: Beckett and the Politics of Death.” In Beckett and Death, edited by Steven Barfield et al. 31–49. London and New York: Continuum, 2009.

Weller, Shane. Samuel Beckett and Cultural Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021.

Wheatley, David. “‘Sweet Thing Theology’: E. M. Cioran and the Lives of the Saints.” In Samuel Beckett: Debts and Legacies New Critical Essays, edited by Peter Fifield and David Addyman. 39–62. London: Bloomsbury, 2013.

Worton, Michael. “Waiting for Godot and Endgame: Theatre as Text.” In The Cambridge Companion to Beckett, edited by John Pilling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Wynands, Sandra. The Dark Theology of Samuel Beckett’s Drama. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007.

Zaharia, Constantin. La parole mélancolique. Une archéologie du discours fragmentaire. Bucharest: Editura Universității București, 1999.

Zarifopol-Johnston, Ilinca. Searching for Cioran. Introduction and edited by Kenneth R. Johnston, Foreword Matei Calinescu. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2009.

DISTRIBUIȚI