Acasă Articole RTR Tollan – Xicocotitlan (Tula) Capitala toltecilor

Tollan – Xicocotitlan (Tula) Capitala toltecilor

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Tollan – Xicocotitlan (Tula). Toltec’s Capital City

The fall of Teotihuacan, around 750 AD, led to a period of belligerence and separation in the entire central Mexico. A number of large and impressive citadels, protected by walls, were built at Xocicalco in Morales, Cholula in Puebla, Tula in Hidalgo, Cacaxtla or Teotenango. These cities reached a stage of high development between the years 750 and 950 AD – during the so called period of Epi-classic – after which they were abandoned, on grounds
which are still debated by specialists. During the next stage, the so called Early Post-classic, between 950 – 1150 AD, Tula or Tollan, could have claimed, by means of length and power, the right as successor of the great Teotihuacan. The modern interpretations concerning the role of Tollan in the history of Mesoamerica, strike the contradictions between the historical recordings on the fortress and the archaeological discoveries. The paper presents the Ceremonial Centre, with its large pyramids, with the ball courts, or the “Atlantes” statues, as well as the controversies on the potential Toltec influences that go as far as Chichen Itza, in Yucatán.
Keywords: Tula, Tollan, Atlantes, Atlatl, Quetzalcoatl, Toltec, Ball Court Pelota, Pyramide, Morning Star

Bibliografie
  • García Cubas, Antonio, Ruinas de la antigua Tollan/The Ruins of Ancient Tollan, Revista
    Societăţii Mexicane de Geografie şi Statistică, ediţia a III-a, 1873, Mexic.
  • Sahagún, Fray Bernardino, Istoria generală a lucrurilor din Noua Spanie/The general history of the things in New Spain, vol. II, pag. 184, ediţia Porrúa, 1956, Mexic.
  • Smith, E., Michael, The Aztecs, Blackwell Publishing, United Kingdom, 2003.
  • Coe, D., Michael, Koontz, R., Mexico, from the Olmecs to the Aztecs, Thames & Hudson, London,2003.
  • Suarez, Augustin, Zona Arqueologica Tula/Tula, archeological acrea, Museo de sitio Jorge R. Acosta, Tula Alende, 2006.
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