Acasă Articole RTR Alexandru Nicolaescu, Sorin Radu, Caricatura electorală – formă a discursului electoral al...

Alexandru Nicolaescu, Sorin Radu, Caricatura electorală – formă a discursului electoral al Partidului Ţărănesc în alegerile parlamentare din mai 1926. Studiu de caz

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Electoral Caricature – Form of Electoral Discourse of the Peasant Party in the Parliamentary Elections from 1926. Study Case

Our study proposses an analysis of the way in which the Peasant Party, one of the most important political forces in Romania in the 1920s, used political caricature as a form of electoral discourse in the campaign for the legislativ elections in 1926. The study case was constructed on an analyses of the caricatures published in two important peasant newspapers that appeared in Bucharest: ,,Aurora” and ,,Ţărănismul”. In the absence of an analysis model in the special literature, we proceeded in a discription of the selected caricatures, following the semnifications, the political and electoral messages that were desired to be transmitted to the electorate.

The caricature is a representation, mainly in sketch, of a person or of a situation through the exaggeration of some features, especially the negative ones, with a satirical or a humoristic intention. This form of electoral discourse is very common in the party’s press and in the independent one from the inter-war years. In the 1920s the caricature was presented, especially in the peasant press and in the one declared independent, but which manifested a constant orientation for center-left, we refer here to ,,Adevărul” and ,,Dimineaţa”.

The authors advocate that the accessibility of this type of electoral propaganda within the electors was consistent, striking. Given that the electorate was predominantly rural (over 80%), with a low political culture, this form of speech was easier to understand. The overwhelming majority of caricatures have as purpose the compromising of the most powerful party – Peasant Party – and of its main supporter – The National Liberal Party. The caricature succeeded in transmitting to the peasant-electors, in an extremely simple manner, the anti-governmental political message of the peasants. With a special talent, the authors of the caricatures succeed to surprise the specificity of the election campaign in that period, mainly the weaknesses of the electoral system (the abuses, the illegalities, the lack of morality of the political actors, the non-compliance with the democratic principals etc.)

Keywords: electoral caricature; electoral discourse; the parliamentary elections from 1926; Peasant Party

Bibliografie

Sources

a) Press

  • Aurora, Bucureşti, 1926.
  • Monitorul Oficial, Bucureşti, 1926.
  • Ţărănismul, Bucureşti, 1926.

Specialized Studies

  • Paul Nistor, „Imaginea adversarului în caricaturile politice ale războiului rece” [„Opponent’s Figure in the Political Caricatures of Cold War”], în Andi Mihalache, Silvia Marin-Barutcieff, De la fictiv la real. Imaginea, imaginarul, imagologia [From Fiction to Reality. Image, Imagery, Imagology], Iaşi, Editura Universităţii „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, 2010, pp. 359-370.

3. General Studies

  • Bulai, Alfred, Mecanismele electorale ale societăţii româneşti [The Electoral Mechanisms of the Romanian Society], Paideia, Bucureşti, 1999.
  • Cmeciu, Camelia Mihaela, Strategii persuasive în discursul politic [Persuasive Strategies in the Political Discourse], Editura Universitas, Bucureşti, 2005.
  • Enache, Răzvan, Structura ficţiunilor comunitare. Tradiţional şi modern în discursul politic românesc interbelic [The Structure of the Community Fictions. Traditional and Modern in the Romanian Interwar Political Discourse], Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca, 2007.
  • Iorga, Nicolae, România Contemporană de la 1904 la 1930. Supt trei regi [Contemporary Romania from 1904 to 1930. Under Three Kings.], ediţia II, Aşezământul tipografic ,,Datina Românească”, București, 1932.
  • Marga, Delia, Introducere în analiza discursului cu referire la istorie şi sfera publică [An Introduction in Discourse Analysis Referring to History and the Public Area], Editura Fundaţiei pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2003.
  • Mihai, Florin-Răzvan, „Alegerile generale din mai 1926”, în Elite parlamentare şi dinamică electorală în România 1919-1937 [„The General Elections from May 1926”, in Parliamentary Elites and the Electoral Dynamics in Romania 1919-1937] coord. Florin Müller, Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti, Bucureşti, 2009.
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  • Radu, Sorin, Electoratul din România în anii democraţiei parlamentare (1919-1937) [The Romanian Electorate in the Years of Parliamentary Democracy (1919-1937)], Institutul European, Iaşi, 2004.
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  • Saizu, Ioan, Eşanu, Leon, Momente din istoria regimului electoral din Ro­mânia (1922-1928) [Moments in the Electoral Regims’s History from Romania (1922-1928)], în „Anale de Istorie”, Bucureşti, tomul XVI, 1970, nr. 3.
  • Saizu, Ioan, Florescu, Gh. I., Alegerile parlamentare din România (1926-1928) [The Parliamentary Elections in Romania (1926-1928)], în „Cercetări Istorice”, Iaşi, tomul IX-X, 1978-1979.
  • Scurtu, Ioan, Alegerile parlamentare din mai 1926 [The Parliamentary Elections form May 1926], în Studii şi Comunicări”, Muzeul Brukenthal, Sibiu, tomul XVIII, 1974.
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